To apply the criteria of long-term service agreements (LTSAs) vs. field repair by maintenance crew services in plants for gas turbines, and to improve reliability, availability, safety, and avoid critical risks and failures in the power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, the following considerations can be made:

Why to apply the criteria:

  • Improve reliability: Effective maintenance services can help enhance the reliability of gas turbines by identifying and addressing potential issues before they escalate into major failures.
  • Enhance availability: Timely maintenance and repair services can minimize equipment downtime, ensuring the availability of gas turbines for uninterrupted operation.
  • Ensure safety: Proper maintenance practices contribute to the safe operation of gas turbines, reducing the risk of accidents or hazardous situations.
  • Mitigate critical risks and failures: Implementing appropriate maintenance strategies can help identify and mitigate critical risks, preventing failures that can lead to significant operational and financial consequences.

When to apply the criteria:

  • During plant operations: It is crucial to consider the maintenance requirements and choose the appropriate service approach throughout the lifecycle of gas turbines, considering their operational demands and maintenance schedules.
  • Before major maintenance events: Prioritize the evaluation of LTSAs or field repair services before significant maintenance activities or overhauls to ensure the availability of required expertise and resources.

Where to apply the criteria:

  • Existing plants: Assess the existing maintenance practices in power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical plants where gas turbines are employed. Determine the need for improvements and the suitability of LTSAs or field repair services based on the specific plant requirements.

What to consider when applying the criteria:

  • Maintenance needs: Identify the specific maintenance needs and challenges associated with gas turbines, such as routine inspections, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting, and repairs.
  • Cost-effectiveness: Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of LTSAs and field repair services by considering factors such as upfront costs, long-term maintenance expenses, potential revenue losses due to downtime, and overall return on investment.
  • Expertise and resources: Assess the availability of in-house maintenance capabilities and expertise in gas turbine maintenance. Consider whether external service providers can offer specialized knowledge and resources.

Which service approach to choose:

  • LTSAs: Evaluate the benefits of long-term service agreements, such as access to OEM expertise, comprehensive maintenance plans, predictable costs, and dedicated support. Consider LTSAs when relying on the manufacturer’s expertise is essential or when specific performance guarantees are desired.
  • Field repair by maintenance crew: Consider field repair services when in-house maintenance teams have the required expertise, resources, and tools to perform maintenance and repairs effectively. This approach provides more control over the maintenance process and allows for immediate response to issues.

How to apply the criteria:

  • Conduct thorough evaluations: Perform a comprehensive assessment of gas turbine maintenance needs, cost implications, plant-specific requirements, and available resources.
  • Engage stakeholders: Involve relevant stakeholders, including plant operators, maintenance personnel, and management, in the decision-making process to ensure alignment and informed choices.
  • Seek expert advice: Consult with gas turbine manufacturers, industry experts, and service providers to gain insights into the best approach for maintenance services based on the specific needs and goals of the plant.
  • Negotiate contracts: When considering LTSAs, negotiate contracts that clearly define the scope of services, performance indicators, response times, and cost structures. Ensure the agreement aligns with the plant’s objectives and provides adequate protection and support.


To apply the criteria of long-term service agreements (LTSAs) vs. field repair by maintenance crew services in existing plants for gas turbines and improve reliability, availability, safety, and mitigate critical risks and failures in the power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, the following procedures, actions, studies, mitigations, and recommendations can be considered:

  1. Procedures:
  • Assess the current maintenance practices: Conduct a comprehensive assessment of the existing maintenance procedures, including inspection schedules, maintenance plans, and repair protocols.
  • Identify areas of improvement: Determine the specific areas where the plant’s maintenance practices can be enhanced to address reliability, availability, and safety concerns.
  • Evaluate service options: Compare the benefits and limitations of LTSAs and field repair services based on the plant’s specific requirements, available resources, and budget considerations.
  • Develop an implementation plan: Create a detailed plan that outlines the steps and timelines for implementing the chosen service approach, including any necessary modifications to existing maintenance procedures.
  1. Actions:
  • Engage with OEMs and service providers: Collaborate with gas turbine manufacturers and service providers to understand the available LTSAs and field repair services. Seek their expertise and guidance in selecting the most suitable option.
  • Conduct a cost-benefit analysis: Evaluate the financial implications of implementing LTSAs or relying on in-house maintenance crews. Consider factors such as upfront costs, ongoing maintenance expenses, potential revenue losses due to downtime, and the overall impact on the plant’s profitability.
  • Establish a communication plan: Communicate the decision regarding the chosen service approach to all relevant stakeholders, including plant operators, maintenance crews, and management. Ensure everyone understands the rationale behind the decision and their roles in its implementation.
  1. Studies:
  • Reliability analysis: Perform a reliability study of the gas turbines to identify common failure modes, their causes, and the associated risks. Use this information to develop proactive maintenance strategies that can be incorporated into the chosen service approach.
  • Failure analysis: Conduct a thorough analysis of past failures and incidents to identify recurring issues and determine the root causes. This analysis helps in designing effective maintenance plans and selecting the appropriate service option.
  1. Mitigation:
  • Training and skill development: Invest in training programs to enhance the skills and knowledge of the maintenance crews. Ensure they are equipped with the necessary expertise to handle routine maintenance tasks, inspections, troubleshooting, and minor repairs.
  • Spare parts management: Develop a comprehensive spare parts management strategy to ensure the availability of critical components and minimize downtime during repairs or replacements.
  • Performance monitoring: Implement a robust monitoring system to track the performance of gas turbines continuously. Use real-time data to identify deviations from expected performance and take corrective actions promptly.
  1. Recommendations:
  • Prioritize preventive maintenance: Emphasize preventive maintenance activities to identify potential issues before they escalate into major failures. Regular inspections, equipment testing, and predictive maintenance techniques should be incorporated into the chosen service approach.
  • Implement condition monitoring: Deploy advanced monitoring technologies, such as vibration analysis, thermography, and oil analysis, to detect early signs of equipment degradation or abnormalities. This enables proactive maintenance interventions and minimizes the risk of unexpected failures.
  • Foster a culture of safety: Prioritize safety in all maintenance activities by providing adequate training, enforcing proper safety protocols, and promoting a culture of continuous improvement.
  • Establish key performance indicators (KPIs): Define and monitor KPIs related to reliability, availability, safety, and maintenance performance to measure the effectiveness of the chosen service approach and drive continuous improvement.


Advantages of Long-Term Service Agreements (LTSAs) for Gas Turbines:

  1. Expertise and specialization: LTSAs are often provided by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) or authorized service providers who have extensive knowledge and expertise in gas turbine maintenance and repair. They have access to OEM-specific training, technical documentation, and specialized tools, ensuring high-quality and reliable service.

  2. Predictable maintenance costs: LTSAs typically involve a fixed or predictable cost structure, allowing plant operators to budget and plan for maintenance expenses more effectively. This can help in financial planning and reduce the risk of unexpected maintenance costs.

  3. Proactive maintenance: LTSAs often include proactive maintenance activities, such as regular inspections, preventive maintenance, and condition monitoring. These measures can help identify potential issues before they escalate into critical failures, improving the reliability and availability of the gas turbine.

  4. OEM support and resources: LTSAs provide access to OEM support and resources, including technical support, engineering expertise, and access to genuine OEM parts. This ensures that the gas turbine is serviced according to OEM recommendations and specifications, minimizing the risk of improper repairs or the use of non-standard parts.

  5. Performance guarantees: LTSAs often come with performance guarantees, where the service provider is contractually obligated to meet certain performance targets, such as efficiency, power output, or emissions compliance. This can help ensure that the gas turbine operates optimally and meets the required performance standards.

Disadvantages of Long-Term Service Agreements (LTSAs) for Gas Turbines:

  1. Higher costs: LTSAs generally involve higher upfront or periodic costs compared to performing maintenance with an in-house maintenance crew or engaging third-party service providers. This can pose financial challenges for plants with limited budgets or cost constraints.

  2. Dependency on external providers: Relying on LTSAs means relying on external service providers for maintenance and repairs. This can limit the plant’s flexibility and control over the maintenance processes, as they are bound by the terms and conditions of the agreement.

  3. Contractual complexities: LTSAs involve complex contractual agreements that need to be carefully reviewed and negotiated. Understanding and managing the terms, conditions, and performance guarantees within the agreement can be challenging.

  4. Limited customization: LTSAs often follow standardized maintenance protocols and schedules, which may not perfectly align with the specific requirements of the plant or the operating conditions of the gas turbine. This can result in suboptimal maintenance practices or missed opportunities for customization.

  5. Potential for delays: Depending on the terms of the agreement and the availability of service personnel or spare parts, there may be delays in response time or repair activities. This could impact the availability and reliability of the gas turbine, particularly during critical situations.

It’s important to carefully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both LTSAs and field repair services based on the specific needs, resources, and goals of the plant. Factors such as cost, expertise, availability, customization requirements, and the criticality of the gas turbine should be considered to determine the most suitable approach for maintenance and repair.

The scope for Long-Term Service Agreements

  • Scheduled Maintenance
  • Unscheduled Maintenance
  • Initial Spare Parts
  • Yearly Spare Parts Replenishment
  • Yearly Audit Services (including borescope inspections)
  • Engineering Support
  • Yearly Training
  • Software Upgrades
  • Preferred Lease Rates
  • Onsite Technician
  • Availability Guarantee and associated bonus/liquidated damage provisions
  • Remote Monitoring Services