To apply the criteria of long-term service agreements (LTSAs) vs. field repair by maintenance crew services in plants for special steam turbines and improve reliability, availability, safety, and mitigate critical risks and failures in the power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, the following information can be considered:

  1. Why:
  • Improve reliability: Implementing effective maintenance strategies helps enhance the reliability of special steam turbines by minimizing unexpected failures and downtime.
  • Increase availability: Optimal maintenance practices ensure that the turbines are available and operational when needed, maximizing their uptime and productivity.
  • Enhance safety: Well-maintained turbines reduce the risk of safety incidents and accidents, protecting personnel and assets.
  • Mitigate critical risks and failures: By addressing potential risks and failures proactively, the plant can minimize the likelihood of critical incidents and associated consequences.
  1. When:
  • Assess the current maintenance performance: Evaluate the existing maintenance practices and identify areas where improvements are needed. This assessment can be conducted periodically or when significant issues arise.
  • Periodic inspections: Conduct regular inspections to monitor the condition of the steam turbines and identify any signs of degradation or potential failures.
  • Consider the age and operating history: Older turbines or those with a history of frequent failures may require more focused attention and consideration of long-term service agreements.
  1. Where:
  • Existing plants: Apply the criteria in plants that are already operational and have special steam turbines in service.
  • Power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries: These industries often rely on special steam turbines for their operations and can benefit from improved reliability, availability, and safety.
  1. What:
  • Evaluation of service options: Compare the benefits and limitations of LTSAs and field repair services based on the specific requirements of the special steam turbines, considering factors such as equipment complexity, criticality, maintenance resources, and budget constraints.
  • Maintenance strategy development: Define a comprehensive maintenance strategy that outlines the approach for maintaining and servicing the special steam turbines, including the mix of LTSAs and field repair services to be utilized.
  1. Which:
  • Determine the optimal mix: Assess the specific needs of the special steam turbines and determine which components or systems are better suited for LTSAs and which can be handled effectively through field repair by maintenance crews.
  • Consider criticality and complexity: Components or systems that are critical to the turbine’s performance and require specialized knowledge or equipment may be better suited for LTSAs provided by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).
  1. How:
  • Engage with OEMs and service providers: Collaborate with turbine manufacturers and service providers to understand the available LTSAs and field repair services. Seek their expertise and guidance in selecting the most suitable option.
  • Develop maintenance protocols: Establish detailed maintenance protocols that outline the procedures, schedules, and responsibilities for both LTSAs and field repairs. Ensure proper documentation and adherence to industry standards and regulations.
  • Training and skill development: Invest in training programs to enhance the skills and knowledge of the maintenance crews responsible for field repairs. This ensures they are equipped with the necessary expertise to handle maintenance tasks effectively and safely.
  • Performance monitoring: Implement a robust monitoring system to track the performance of the special steam turbines continuously. Utilize real-time data to identify deviations from expected performance and trigger appropriate maintenance actions.


To apply the criteria of long-term service agreements (LTSAs) vs. field repair by maintenance crew services in an existing plant for special steam turbines, with the goal of improving reliability, availability, safety, and avoiding critical risks and failures in the power generation, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, the following procedures, actions, studies, mitigation measures, and recommendations can be considered:

  1. Procedures:
  • Perform a comprehensive assessment: Conduct a thorough evaluation of the existing steam turbine systems, including their condition, maintenance history, and performance. Identify any areas of concern or potential risks.
  • Identify critical components: Determine the critical components and systems within the steam turbine that require regular maintenance and specialized attention.
  • Develop maintenance plans: Create detailed maintenance plans that outline the procedures, schedules, and responsibilities for both LTSAs and field repair services. This includes inspection, testing, lubrication, repair, and replacement activities.
  • Establish documentation protocols: Implement a robust documentation system to record all maintenance activities, including service reports, inspection findings, repairs performed, and any modifications made to the turbine system.
  1. Actions:
  • Engage with OEMs and service providers: Collaborate with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and qualified service providers to discuss LTSAs and field repair services. Evaluate their expertise, capabilities, and track record in servicing special steam turbines.
  • Implement preventive maintenance: Execute regular inspections, testing, and preventive maintenance activities as per the maintenance plans. This includes cleaning, lubricating, and adjusting components, as well as identifying and addressing early signs of deterioration or potential failures.
  • Execute corrective maintenance: Take prompt action to address identified issues, including repairs and component replacements. Ensure that repairs are performed by qualified personnel following industry standards and guidelines.
  • Conduct performance studies: Carry out performance studies to analyze the operational data and performance trends of the steam turbines. This helps in identifying areas of improvement, optimizing maintenance schedules, and making informed decisions on LTSAs or field repairs.
  1. Studies:
  • Reliability studies: Perform reliability studies to identify failure modes, determine failure probabilities, and assess the criticality of components and systems. This data can guide decisions on whether LTSAs or field repair services are more suitable for specific turbine parts.
  • Condition monitoring: Implement a comprehensive condition monitoring program using techniques such as vibration analysis, thermography, oil analysis, and performance monitoring. This enables the early detection of potential failures, allowing for proactive maintenance actions.
  1. Mitigation:
  • Develop contingency plans: Prepare contingency plans for potential failures or unexpected downtime, including strategies for rapid response, spare parts availability, and alternative power supply arrangements.
  • Risk assessment and management: Conduct regular risk assessments to identify potential hazards, evaluate their severity, and implement appropriate risk mitigation measures. This includes analyzing risks associated with both LTSAs and field repair services.
  1. Recommendations:
  • Consider a combination approach: Depending on the criticality and complexity of components, consider a mix of LTSAs and field repair services. Utilize LTSAs for critical and specialized components, while employing the expertise of the maintenance crew for routine maintenance tasks.
  • Foster a culture of safety: Promote a strong safety culture within the maintenance team, emphasizing the importance of adhering to safety protocols and guidelines during maintenance activities.
  • Continuous improvement: Encourage ongoing learning and improvement by monitoring and analyzing maintenance performance metrics, sharing best practices, and incorporating lessons learned into future maintenance plans.


Advantages of Long-Term Service Agreements (LTSAs) for Special Steam Turbines:

  1. Expertise and specialized knowledge: LTSAs are often provided by OEMs or authorized service providers who possess extensive expertise and specialized knowledge in steam turbine maintenance and repair. They have access to OEM-specific training, technical documentation, and specialized tools, ensuring high-quality and reliable service.

  2. Predictable maintenance costs: LTSAs typically involve a fixed or predictable cost structure, allowing plant operators to budget and plan for maintenance expenses more effectively. This can help in financial planning and reduce the risk of unexpected maintenance costs.

  3. Proactive maintenance: LTSAs often include proactive maintenance activities, such as regular inspections, preventive maintenance, and condition monitoring. These measures can help identify potential issues before they escalate into critical failures, improving the reliability and availability of the steam turbine.

  4. OEM support and resources: LTSAs provide access to OEM support and resources, including technical support, engineering expertise, and access to genuine OEM parts. This ensures that the steam turbine is serviced according to OEM recommendations and specifications, minimizing the risk of improper repairs or the use of non-standard parts.

  5. Performance guarantees: LTSAs often come with performance guarantees, where the service provider is contractually obligated to meet certain performance targets, such as efficiency, power output, or emissions compliance. This can help ensure that the steam turbine operates optimally and meets the required performance standards.

Disadvantages of Long-Term Service Agreements (LTSAs) for Special Steam Turbines:

  1. Higher costs: LTSAs generally involve higher upfront or periodic costs compared to performing maintenance with an in-house maintenance crew or engaging third-party service providers. This can pose financial challenges for plants with limited budgets or cost constraints.

  2. Dependency on external providers: Relying on LTSAs means relying on external service providers for maintenance and repairs. This can limit the plant’s flexibility and control over the maintenance processes, as they are bound by the terms and conditions of the agreement.

  3. Contractual complexities: LTSAs involve complex contractual agreements that need to be carefully reviewed and negotiated. Understanding and managing the terms, conditions, and performance guarantees within the agreement can be challenging.

  4. Limited customization: LTSAs often follow standardized maintenance protocols and schedules, which may not perfectly align with the specific requirements of the plant or the operating conditions of the steam turbine. This can result in suboptimal maintenance practices or missed opportunities for customization.

  5. Potential for delays: Depending on the terms of the agreement and the availability of service personnel or spare parts, there may be delays in response time or repair activities. This could impact the availability and reliability of the steam turbine, particularly during critical situations.

It’s important to carefully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both LTSAs and field repair services based on the specific needs, resources, and goals of the plant. Factors such as cost, expertise, availability, customization requirements, and the criticality of the steam turbine should be considered to determine the most suitable approach for maintenance and repair.

The scope for long term services agreements

  • Scheduled Maintenance
  • Unscheduled Maintenance
  • Initial Spare Parts
  • Yearly Spare Parts Replenishment
  • Yearly Audit Services (including borescope inspections)
  • Engineering Support
  • Yearly Training
  • Software Upgrades
  • Preferred Lease Rates
  • Onsite Technician
  • Availability Guarantee and associated bonus/liquidated damage provisions
  • Remote Monitoring Services