PERFORMANCE TEST (AT SHOP vs AT SITE) - GAS TURBINES

ADVANTAGES IN PERFORMANCE TEST (AT SHOP)

ADVANTAGES IN PERFORMANCE TEST (AT SITE)

Performing a performance test at shop for gas turbines, such as ASME PTC-22 or equivalent, can provide several advantages for power generation plants, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, for both new projects and existing process plants. These advantages include:

  1. Quality assurance: A performance test at shop can ensure that the gas turbine meets the design specifications and performance requirements before installation. This helps to avoid costly errors or delays in the installation process.

  2. Improved reliability: By testing the gas turbine’s performance before it is installed, any potential issues or defects can be identified and addressed, which can help to improve the overall reliability of the system.

  3. Reduced downtime: If a gas turbine fails after it has been installed, it can cause significant downtime and production losses. By performing a performance test at shop, potential issues can be identified and addressed before the gas turbine is installed, reducing the risk of unplanned downtime.

  4. Improved safety: A gas turbine that is not functioning properly can pose a safety risk to employees and the surrounding environment. By ensuring that the gas turbine is operating at optimal performance levels, the risk of accidents or incidents can be minimized.

  5. Cost savings: Identifying and addressing potential issues during a performance test at shop can help to reduce maintenance and repair costs over the life of the gas turbine.

Overall, performing a performance test at shop for gas turbines can provide a range of benefits, including improved quality assurance, reliability, safety, and cost savings.

Performing a performance test at site for gas turbines has several reasons and advantages, including:

  1. Verification of performance guarantees: By conducting a performance test at site, the performance guarantees provided by the manufacturer can be verified. This ensures that the gas turbine is operating as intended and meets the specified performance criteria.

  2. Optimization of operation: A performance test can identify any areas where the gas turbine is not operating at its optimum level. By addressing these issues, the efficiency of the gas turbine can be improved, which can result in lower fuel consumption and increased power output.

  3. Identification of potential issues: A performance test can also identify any potential issues that may be present in the gas turbine. This allows for early detection and resolution of problems before they can lead to more serious issues or failures.

  4. Compliance with regulations: Many industries, such as the power generation industry, have strict regulations that must be followed. Conducting a performance test can help ensure that the gas turbine is in compliance with these regulations.

  5. Increased safety: Ensuring that the gas turbine is operating as intended can increase safety by reducing the risk of unexpected failures or malfunctions.

  6. Maintenance planning: Performance testing can also provide valuable information that can be used for maintenance planning. By understanding the condition of the gas turbine, maintenance activities can be scheduled in a way that minimizes downtime and maximizes efficiency.

Overall, a performance test at site for gas turbines is an important tool that can help improve reliability, safety, and efficiency, while also ensuring compliance with regulations and providing valuable information for maintenance planning.

DISADVANTAGES IN PERFORMANCE TEST AT SHOP

DISADVANTAGES IN PERFORMANCE TEST AT SITE

There are several disadvantages of applying a performance test at SHOP for gas turbines, including:

  1. Limitations in replicating site conditions: Gas turbines are typically designed to operate under specific site conditions that may vary based on environmental factors such as altitude, humidity, and temperature. Testing at the shop may not fully replicate these conditions and may not fully account for site-specific performance factors.

  2. Transportation and installation challenges: Transporting and installing gas turbines can be complex and expensive, and testing them at the shop may require additional logistical considerations.

  3. Limited access to other plant systems: Gas turbines are often part of a larger plant system that includes other equipment and processes. Testing the turbine in isolation at the shop may not fully account for the impact of other plant systems on its performance.

  4. Higher costs: The cost of conducting a performance test at the shop can be higher than at the site, due to additional equipment, personnel, and transportation costs.

Overall, while testing gas turbines at the shop can provide certain advantages such as greater control over testing conditions, it may not fully replicate site conditions and may not fully account for the impact of other plant systems on its performance.

There are some disadvantages to conducting performance tests on gas turbines at the site:

  1. Interruption to Production: Conducting a performance test on a gas turbine requires shutting it down, which can lead to a temporary interruption in the production process, leading to lost revenue and potentially dissatisfied customers.

  2. Weather Conditions: Weather conditions can significantly impact the accuracy of the test results. Conditions such as high winds, rain, or humidity can interfere with the turbine’s performance and skew the test results.

  3. Site Limitations: The site may not have sufficient space or resources to conduct a proper performance test, which could compromise the accuracy and reliability of the results.

  4. Logistics: Transporting equipment to the site and setting up the necessary equipment can be time-consuming and costly.

  5. Safety Concerns: Performance testing at a site involves working with live equipment, which can pose safety risks to personnel and require additional safety measures to be put in place.

WHY, WHEN, WHERE, WHAT, WHICH, HOW TO APPLY PERFORMANCE TEST AT SHOP vs AT SITE

Why apply performance tests at the shop and at the site?

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests are typically conducted before the installation of gas turbines to ensure that they meet design specifications, performance guarantees, and contractual obligations. These tests provide an opportunity to identify any performance issues or deviations and rectify them before installation.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests are conducted after the installation of gas turbines to verify their performance under real-world operating conditions. These tests take into account the specific site conditions, such as ambient temperature, humidity, and altitude, to ensure the turbines operate optimally and safely.

When to apply performance tests:

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests should be conducted during the manufacturing phase of the gas turbines, prior to their delivery and installation. These tests ensure that the turbines meet the required performance criteria and can be effectively integrated into the power generation or industrial processes.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests should be conducted after the gas turbines have been installed and commissioned in the power generation plant or industrial facility. These tests validate the turbine’s performance in its actual operating environment and account for any site-specific conditions that may impact its reliability and safety.

Where to apply performance tests:

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests are typically conducted at the manufacturing facility or dedicated testing facilities provided by the turbine manufacturer.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests are conducted at the location where the gas turbines have been installed, i.e., the power generation plant or industrial facility.

What to include in performance tests:

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests typically include a comprehensive evaluation of the gas turbine’s mechanical and aerodynamic performance. This includes measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow rate, efficiency, and vibration analysis. The tests also assess the turbine’s response to different load conditions and evaluate auxiliary systems, controls, and safety features.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests focus on verifying the gas turbine’s performance under actual operating conditions. This includes measuring and analyzing parameters such as power output, fuel consumption, emissions, and performance across different operating ranges. Additionally, site performance tests assess the integration of the turbine with the overall power generation system, including control systems, heat recovery systems, and exhaust gas treatment.

Which performance tests to conduct:

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests typically include mechanical run tests, aerodynamic performance tests, and vibration analysis. These tests ensure that the gas turbine meets the specified design requirements, performance guarantees, and contractual obligations.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests include performance verification tests, transient response tests, emissions testing, and control system testing. These tests validate the turbine’s performance under real-world operating conditions and assess its response to load changes, safety shutdowns, and control system commands.

How to conduct performance tests:

  • Shop Performance Tests: Shop performance tests are conducted by the turbine manufacturer or their designated testing personnel. They follow standardized test procedures, which may include running the turbine at different operating points, measuring performance parameters, and analyzing the data to verify compliance with design specifications.
  • Site Performance Tests: Site performance tests are typically conducted by a team of engineers and technicians from the turbine manufacturer or independent third-party testing organizations. The tests involve running the turbine under various load conditions, monitoring performance parameters, and analyzing the data to ensure the turbine operates safely and reliably in its intended environment.

PROCEDURES, ACTIONS, STUDIES, MITIGATION, RECOMMENDATIONS TO APPLY THE PERFORMANCE TEST AT SHOP vs AT SITE

  1. Procedures and Actions for Shop Performance Tests: a. Test Plan Development: Develop a comprehensive test plan that outlines the specific procedures, measurements, and acceptance criteria for the gas turbine performance test. b. Mechanical Inspection: Conduct a thorough inspection of the turbine’s mechanical components, such as blades, rotors, seals, and bearings, to ensure they meet the specified tolerances and quality standards. c. Aerodynamic Performance Testing: Measure and evaluate the gas turbine’s performance characteristics, including power output, efficiency, compressor and turbine inlet and outlet pressures and temperatures, and fuel consumption. d. Vibration Analysis: Perform vibration analysis to identify any excessive vibration levels that could impact the reliability and safety of the gas turbine. Take corrective actions if necessary. e. Control System Testing: Evaluate the performance of the gas turbine’s control systems, including startup, shutdown, load modulation, and safety shutdown sequences, to ensure they operate properly. f. Documentation and Reporting: Document the test procedures, measurements, observations, and any deviations from expected performance. Provide a comprehensive report detailing the test results, recommendations, and any necessary corrective actions.

  2. Procedures and Actions for Site Performance Tests: a. Pre-Test Preparation: Ensure that the gas turbine installation site is ready for testing, including proper commissioning, integration into the power generation system, and compliance with safety regulations. b. Performance Verification under Operating Conditions: Conduct performance tests under actual operating conditions, including different load levels, ambient temperature, humidity, and altitude variations. Measure and assess key performance parameters such as power output, heat rate, exhaust gas temperature, and emissions. c. Transient Performance Testing: Evaluate the gas turbine’s transient response capabilities, including startup, shutdown, and load ramping. Measure parameters such as response time, stability, and control system effectiveness during transient events. d. Emissions Testing: Measure and analyze exhaust emissions to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and identify any potential environmental impact or safety concerns. e. Control System and Safety Testing: Verify the gas turbine’s control system functionality, including safety interlocks, emergency shutdown sequences, and protection systems. Assess their performance during abnormal conditions and emergency situations. f. Ongoing Performance Monitoring: Implement a system for continuous performance monitoring of the gas turbine, including monitoring of key performance indicators, vibration levels, and other relevant parameters. This allows for early detection of potential issues and facilitates proactive maintenance. g. Documentation and Reporting: Document the site performance test procedures, measurements, observations, any deviations from expected performance, and the actions taken to address them. Provide a comprehensive report outlining the test findings, recommendations, and any further steps for improvement.

  3. Studies and Mitigation Measures for Performance Test Improvement

  1. Studies for Performance Test Improvement: a. Failure Analysis Studies: Conduct comprehensive failure analysis studies to identify common failure modes and root causes specific to gas turbines. Analyze historical data, industry case studies, and research to understand failure mechanisms and improve testing protocols accordingly. b. Reliability and Safety Studies: Perform in-depth reliability and safety studies to assess potential risks, vulnerabilities, and safety concerns associated with gas turbine performance. Identify critical failure points and implement measures to mitigate risks. c. Operational and Maintenance Studies: Analyze operational and maintenance data to identify patterns or trends that could impact gas turbine performance, reliability, and safety. Study maintenance practices, inspection records, and repair histories to identify areas for improvement.

  2. Mitigation Measures for Performance Test Improvement: a. Enhanced Quality Control: Implement rigorous quality control measures throughout the manufacturing process of gas turbines to ensure compliance with design specifications and performance requirements. b. Improved Component Testing: Enhance testing and inspection of critical components, such as blades, rotors, combustion systems, and control systems, to identify any potential weaknesses or performance deviations. c. Advanced Instrumentation and Monitoring: Utilize advanced instrumentation and monitoring techniques, such as real-time data acquisition systems, condition monitoring tools, and remote monitoring capabilities, to capture and analyze performance data during both shop and site tests. This enables early detection of anomalies and proactive maintenance measures. d. Enhanced Test Procedures: Continuously review and refine the test procedures based on lessons learned from previous performance tests and industry best practices. Incorporate specific test points, performance criteria, and acceptance criteria to ensure accurate and comprehensive evaluations. e. Training and Competency Development: Invest in training programs to enhance the skills and knowledge of personnel involved in performance testing. This includes training on test procedures, data analysis techniques, and safety protocols to ensure accurate and reliable test results.

  3. Recommendations for Performance Test Improvement: a. Standardized Testing Protocols: Develop standardized testing protocols for both shop and site performance tests. These protocols should include clear guidelines on test procedures, measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and reporting formats. b. Alignment with Industry Standards: Align performance testing procedures with relevant industry standards and guidelines, such as ASME PTC 22 or ISO 2314. Adhering to these standards ensures consistency, reliability, and comparability of test results. c. Documentation and Knowledge Sharing: Maintain comprehensive documentation of performance test procedures, results, and any deviations or issues encountered. Encourage knowledge sharing within the organization and industry by documenting and sharing best practices and lessons learned. d. Collaboration with Equipment Manufacturers: Engage in active collaboration with gas turbine manufacturers, industry experts, and research institutions to exchange knowledge, gather insights, and implement state-of-the-art testing techniques. This collaboration can lead to improved performance testing practices and better outcomes. e. Regular Performance Monitoring: Implement a system for continuous performance monitoring of gas turbines in operation. Monitor key performance indicators, such as power output, efficiency, emissions, and vibration levels, to detect any deviations from expected performance and initiate appropriate corrective actions.